From the International Agency for Cancer Research.

Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum
herbicide, currently with the highest
production volumes of all herbicides.
It is used in more than 750 diff erent
products for agriculture, forestry,
urban, and home applications. Its
use has increased sharply with the
development of genetically modifi ed
glyphosate-resistant crop varieties.
Glyphosate has been detected in air
during spraying, in water, and in food.
There was limited evidence in humans
for the carcinogenicity of glyphosate.
Case-control studies of occupational
exposure in the USA,14 Canada,6 and
Sweden7 reported increased risks
for non-Hodgkin lymphoma that
persisted after adjustment for other
pesticides. The AHS cohort did not
show a signifi cantly increased risk
of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. In male
CD-1 mice, glyphosate induced a
positive trend in the incidence of a
rare tumour, renal tubule carcinoma. A
second study reported a positive trend
for haemangiosarcoma in male mice.15
Glyphosate increased pancreatic
islet-cell adenoma in male rats in two
studies. A glyphosate formulation
promoted skin tumours in an
initiation-promotion study in mice.
Glyphosate has been detected in
the blood and urine of agricultural
workers, indicating absorption.
Soil microbes degrade glyphosate
to aminomethylphosphoric acid
(AMPA). Blood AMPA detection
after poisonings suggests intestinal
micro bial metabolism in humans.
Glyphosate and glyphosate formulations
induced DNA and chromosomal
damage in mammals, and in human
and animal cells in vitro. One study
reported increases in blood markers of
chromosomal damage (micronuclei) in
residents of several communities after
spraying of glyphosate formulations.16
Bacterial mutagenesis tests were
negative. Glyphosate, glyphosate
formulations, and AMPA induced
oxidative stress in rodents and in
vitro. The Working Group classifi ed
glyphosate as “probably carcinogenic
to humans” (Group 2A).
We declare no competing interests.
Kathryn Z Guyton, Dana Loomis,
Yann Grosse, Fatiha El Ghissassi,
Lamia Benbrahim-Tallaa, Neela Guha,
Chiara Scoccianti, Heidi Mattock,
Kurt Straif, on behalf of the
International Agency for Research on
Cancer Monograph Working Group,
IARC, Lyon, France
International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon,

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